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Precision is a measure of how well a result can be determined without reference to a theoretical or true value. It is the degree of consistency and agreement among independent measurements of the same quantity; also the reliability or reproducibility of the result. The uncertainty estimate associated with a measurement should account for both the accuracy and precision of the measurement. Random errors are statistical fluctuations in either direction in the measured data due to the precision limitations of the measurement device.

Random errors can be evaluated through statistical analysis and can be reduced by averaging over a large number of observations see standard error. Systematic errors are reproducible inaccuracies that are consistently in the same direction.

Nuclear fusion

These errors are difficult to detect and cannot be analyzed statistically. If a systematic error is identified when calibrating against a standard, applying a correction or correction factor to compensate for the effect can reduce the bias. Unlike random errors, systematic errors cannot be detected or reduced by increasing the number of observations.

Gross personal errors, sometimes called mistakes or blunders , should be avoided and corrected if discovered. As a rule, personal errors are excluded from the error analysis discussion because it is generally assumed that the experimental result was obtained by following correct procedures. The term human error should also be avoided in error analysis discussions because it is too general to be useful.

The uncertainty of a single measurement is limited by the precision and accuracy of the measuring instrument, along with any other factors that might affect the ability of the experimenter to make the measurement. Whenever possible, repeat a measurement several times and average the results. This average is generally the best estimate of the "true" value unless the data set is skewed by one or more outliers which should be examined to determine if they are bad data points that should be omitted from the average or valid measurements that require further investigation.

Generally, the more repetitions you make of a measurement, the better this estimate will be, but be careful to avoid wasting time taking more measurements than is necessary for the precision required. For example, while eyes have evolved independently, all eyed creatures share an ancestor with opsins and the PAX6 gene; a creature in need of an optical sense organ without those tools might have come up with an entirely different solution.

Equations of Life

Moving from subtitle to title, what the author calls "the equations of life" have the opposite problem. He simply cannot be stopped. The Earthers' only hope is 'the plan', an ambitious gambit devised by Supreme Consul Setter Caine in hopes of cheating the plague of total victory. Omega can overpower any force in the universe. Even with the help of their allies, the Earthers cannot defeat him Read more Read less.

Amazon Giveaway allows you to run promotional giveaways in order to create buzz, reward your audience, and attract new followers and customers. Vincenty relied on formulation of this method given by Rainsford, Legendre showed that an ellipsoidal geodesic can be exactly mapped to a great circle on the auxiliary sphere by mapping the geographic latitude to reduced latitude and setting the azimuth of the great circle equal to that of the geodesic. The longitude on the ellipsoid and the distance along the geodesic are then given in terms of the longitude on the sphere and the arc length along the great circle by simple integrals.

Bessel and Helmert gave rapidly converging series for these integrals, which allow the geodesic to be computed with arbitrary accuracy. This resulted in compact expressions for the longitude and distance integrals. The expressions were put in Horner or nested form, since this allows polynomials to be evaluated using only a single temporary register.

Finally, simple iterative techniques were used to solve the implicit equations in the direct and inverse methods; even though these are slow and in the case of the inverse method it sometimes does not converge , they result in the least increase in code size. If the initial point is at the North or South pole, then the first equation is indeterminate. If the initial azimuth is due East or West, then the second equation is indeterminate.

If a double valued atan2 type function is used, then these values are usually handled correctly. In his letter to Survey Review in , Vincenty suggested replacing his series expressions for A and B with simpler formulas using Helmert's expansion parameter k. Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats.

Anti-Life Equation | DC Database | FANDOM powered by Wikia

Equations of Life; Ladies Man? Vincenty's formulae? Product details. Augustines Life and Work, Confessions, Letters. Smarty Volume 3; This is a hard book to review. What are the equations for moving through water or walking on land? Why does it even matter? What would it tell us? It actually tells us a lot. If we can begin by understanding how simple forces like gravity funny to call it simple since that force is one of the most complex issues in physics today can pull something inward or more accurately, make something roll down a hill toward it , we can understand something about the formation of stars and planets, as well as gain an understanding of our wider universe.

But, what forces are at work when a small lady bug climbs up a wall?

Period equation

The tiny bug isn't very affected by gravity. Along with a weak force of gravity, the molecular forces of Van der Waals bonds are at work on the tiny, building climbing bug. How did that lady bug come to exist on the land and not exist as a fish in water, which allows animals to be less constrained by the forces of gravity? How did even larger animals, like big boned elephants, large horses, or humans evolve to withstand the pressures gravity exerts on land dwelling creatures?

What are the equations that could help us understand how bones and skin need to change in order for fish to evolve and climb out of the water and, over time, evolve limbs that allow it to walk on land and bones thick enough to withstand the 9. What are the equations that govern the evolution of thickening skin, which now has to do the job of absorbing highly energetic UV rays from the sun that the water used to absorb?


  • Basics of Differential Equations - Calculus Volume 2 - OpenStax.
  • Die Analyse des Achtungsbegriffs in Kants Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten (German Edition);
  • The Nitrogen Cycle | Earth Science | Visionlearning?

In order to avoid cell damage fungi, plants, and animals had to develop pigment, such as melanin, to help fend off some of that cancer causing energy. In addition to needing pigment, skin that exists on land has to be able to trap water inside.

Calculating the Gravitational Force

Your ancestors might have left the water, but if they didn't put water back inside their bodies very often and trap that water in a nice thick membrane of skin, they would have become dehydrated and died. What are the equations that constrain the extreme boundaries for the existence of any form of life?

Manual The Earther Equation (The Equations Series Book 4)

One thing we can look at is temperature. Extreme temperatures around earth make it difficult for life forms to take shape or remain active. For example, organisms can live at degrees C, but everything runs so slowly. A slow metabolism means that a cell cannot repair itself fast enough from normal cellular damage. At Earth's poles, such as Antarctica, temperatures are so cold, it freezes the fatty acids that make up the cell's membrane. A frozen membrane causes a cell to starve to death.

The frozen, rigid fatty acid membrane cannot open up and take in nutrients like oxygen, carbon, etc. To make their membranes a bit more flexible, some cells have evolved a single modification that allows the fatty acid to form a double bond instead of the normal single bond. That double bond is life saving because it allows cells to gain enough flexibility to open their mouths channels and take in food and air oxygen, carbon, etc.

Imagine your nostrils and mouth being frozen shut but then someone pokes a tiny hole in one of your openings and lets you breath air, drink water, or ingest food. Reading this section, funny enough, made me think of a show I saw when I was young, which horrified me. A girl was abducted and buried under ground, with only a thin tube through which to breathe.


  1. Indecent Attraction.
  2. CHRONOLOGY: 1941-1945.
  3. The Juderia: A Holocaust Survivors Tribute to the Jewish Community of Rhodes;
  4. Equations of State and Thermophysical Properties of Solids Under Pressure?
  5. Measurements and Error Analysis.
  6. The Body.
  7. That tv show really stuck with me. When I read about the poor cells in Antarctica, I could not help but think about the girl who was buried and partially suffocated.

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    Weird thing to relate, I know. Conversely, if temperatures are too high, even the fastest metabolizing cells cannot move fast enough to repair damage because that much heat causes damage on a continual basis.

    Life exists only on a thin layer on the planet. Even if we could extend the boundary of life to C, we could triple the thickness of biosphere, which is still only about 0. Cockell stated, "Life is denied depth of earth bc of thermal energy", and "Between absolute zero and the temperature of interior of a star like the sun, life occupies only 0. Of course not. But this is certainly a good place to start. There was quite a bit of discussion about the origin of life: how could lipids initially form into membranes; the tendency for molecules to want to disperse and not gather together to make the energy cells need; how could a cellular bag trap enough energy to allow for repair and replication; is there enough energy in a warm little pond, ocean waves, or crashing meteorites to allow replication; etc.

    When it came to the origin of life section in the book, I felt like he could have been a bit more forceful with his arguments here. Much of the material about cells has been known for quite some time. The exquisite, yet older, detail laid out in this book is only necessary to include because it provides foundational information for his central argument, which is that biology is constrained by physics. Without making a strong argument against theories that do not take the second law of thermodynamics and other laws of physics into account, this book could be a summary of what is already known and well told in many other books.

    I am not saying Cockell doesn't get around to the point, but he often discusses theories that are not constrained by the laws of physics as viable theories, only to passively - and at a later point - describe the physics that these theories ignore. I think a reader who is not familiar with both physics and biology might be forgiven for missing the point at times. Another thing missing from his first life discussion was the evolution of channels.

    This is absolutely an essential point. If he argues throughout the book that there are some universal rules, and the most important among them are that any species must take in nutrients and expel waste products during metabolism, then they need channels capable of doing that.

    The person working tirelessly on that is Nick Lane. So again, I don't know why he would not specifically mention Lane's work here. I felt as if there were politics at play and I get so bothered when the politics of science get int he way of the science. Despite the forgoing criticisms, which is actually more of a suggestion for his future writing than it is an actual criticism, this book is a solid 5 star book.